西南印度洋中脊地质构造特征及其地球动力学意义

余星, 迪克·亨利, 李小虎, 初凤友, 董彦辉, 胡航. 2020. 西南印度洋中脊地质构造特征及其地球动力学意义. 地球物理学报, 63(10): 3585-3603, doi: 10.6038/cjg2020N0230
引用本文: 余星, 迪克·亨利, 李小虎, 初凤友, 董彦辉, 胡航. 2020. 西南印度洋中脊地质构造特征及其地球动力学意义. 地球物理学报, 63(10): 3585-3603, doi: 10.6038/cjg2020N0230
YU Xing, DICK Henry, LI XiaoHu, CHU FengYou, DONG YanHui, HU Hang. 2020. The geotectonic features of the Southwest Indian Ridge and its geodynamic implications. Chinese Journal of Geophysics (in Chinese), 63(10): 3585-3603, doi: 10.6038/cjg2020N0230
Citation: YU Xing, DICK Henry, LI XiaoHu, CHU FengYou, DONG YanHui, HU Hang. 2020. The geotectonic features of the Southwest Indian Ridge and its geodynamic implications. Chinese Journal of Geophysics (in Chinese), 63(10): 3585-3603, doi: 10.6038/cjg2020N0230

西南印度洋中脊地质构造特征及其地球动力学意义

  • 基金项目:

    国家自然科学基金项目(41872242),大洋"十三五"资源环境专项(DY135-S2-1-02)和自然资源部第二海洋研究所基本科研业务费专项(JT2001和JG2001)联合资助

详细信息
    作者简介:

    余星, 男, 1981年生, 副研究员, 从事岩石大地构造学研究.E-mail:yuxing@sio.org.cn

  • 中图分类号: P541

The geotectonic features of the Southwest Indian Ridge and its geodynamic implications

  • 西南印度洋中脊(SWIR)增生的洋壳面积仅占印度洋的15%左右,但其具有比东南印度洋中脊和西北印度洋中脊更悠久而复杂的演化历史.基于已有的地质、地球物理和地球化学等资料,系统总结了SWIR的地质构造特征,并讨论了SWIR的演化过程、洋脊地幔的不均一性、洋脊周边海底高原成因等核心问题.SWIR地形中段高、东西两段低,空间重力异常基本与地形变化一致.按转换断层一级边界可将SWIR划分为20个一级段.SWIR的磁异常条带呈现两端渐进式分布和中段带状分布特征,对应洋脊的三期演化历史.SWIR的地幔源区极不均一,尤其是中新元古代造山带根部集中拆离的中段.源区地幔的不均一性与大陆裂解和洋脊演化过程密切相关.SWIR的东端与西北印度洋中脊和东南印度洋中脊的邻近洋脊段具有地球化学亲缘性,西端与大西洋中脊和南美洲—南极洲洋中脊的邻近洋脊段具有地球化学亲缘性,这与SWIR的渐近式扩张有关.SWIR周边海底高原普遍具有较大的地壳厚度,其成因除了陆壳基底之外,可能与热点火山作用、热点-洋脊相互作用或热点-三联点相互作用有关,目前尚未形成统一的认识.SWIR的形成演化及其作用域内的熔融异常(如海底高原)是冈瓦纳大陆裂解、残留岩石圈地幔、软流圈地幔和深部地幔热柱物质共同作用的结果.了解SWIR的演化过程对揭示冈瓦纳大陆的裂解过程和印度洋的演化具有重要意义.

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  • 图 1 

    西南印度洋中脊及周边地形特征

    Figure 1. 

    The topography of the Southwest Indian Ridge and its adjacent region

    图 2 

    西南印度洋中脊不同洋脊段的横向水深剖面图

    Figure 2. 

    The bathymetric profiles of selected sections of the Southwest Indian Ridge

    图 3 

    西南印度洋中脊的自由空间重力异常(FAA)分布图

    Figure 3. 

    The free-air gravity anomalies (FAA) for the Southwest Indian Ridge

    图 4 

    西南印度洋中脊及周边磁异常分布图

    Figure 4. 

    The magnetic anomalies for the Southwest Indian Ridge and adjacent area

    图 5 

    西南印度洋中脊作用域洋壳年龄分布图

    Figure 5. 

    The oceanic crust ages for the Southwest Indian Ocean

    图 6 

    西南印度洋120Ma以来洋脊演化过程示意图

    Figure 6. 

    The evolution of spreading ridges in the Southwest Indian Ocean since 120 Ma

    图 7 

    西南印度洋中脊沿轴玄武岩分布及Sr-Nd-Pb-He同位素特征

    Figure 7. 

    The distribution of MORBs from the Southwest Indian Ridge and their Sr-Nd-Pb-He isotopic compositions

    图 8 

    西南印度洋中脊MORB的Sr-Nd-Pb同位素特征

    Figure 8. 

    The Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions for the Southwest Indian Ridge

    图 9 

    西南印度洋中脊及邻近洋脊的MORB Sr-Nd-Pb同位素特征

    Figure 9. 

    The Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions for the Southwest Indian Ridge and its adjacent ridges

    表 1 

    西南印度洋中脊主要转换断层(断裂带)参数统计表

    Table 1. 

    The parameters of the main transform faults along the Southwest Indian Ridge

    一级洋脊段 前人分段命名规则 东界断裂带 断距
    /km
    断层位置 滑动方向 推测断层起始时间
    编号 建议名 中文名 英文名 缩写 经度 纬度
    1 BB 布维断裂带 Bouvet FZ BO 167 1°55′E 54°18′S 左旋 20 Ma
    2 BM 魔术师断裂带 Moshesh FZ MO 32 4°35′E 54°14′S 左旋 < 5 Ma
    3 MI 伊拉斯—奥卡达斯断裂带 Islas Orcadas FZ IO 102 6°03′E 54°09′S 左旋 20 Ma
    4 IS 沙卡断裂带 Shaka FZ SH 192 8°59′E 53°24′S 左旋 20 Ma
    5 SD Oblique and Orthogonal supersegments a) 迪图瓦断裂带 DuToit FZ DT 160 25°30′E 52°59′S 左旋 >90 Ma
    6 DA 安德鲁—贝恩断裂带 Andrew Bain FZ AB 720 29°49′E 49°44′S 左旋 >150 Ma
    7 AM 马里昂断裂带 Marion FZ MA 125 33°36′E 46°42′S 左旋 >120 Ma
    8 MP 爱德华王子断裂带 Prince Edward FZ PE 155 35°06′E 45°28′S 左旋 >120 Ma
    9 PE D4b) 埃里克辛普森断裂带 Eric Simpson FZ ES 112 39°15′E 43°47′S 左旋 >120 Ma
    10 ED D3b) 德克勒克断裂带 DeKlerk FZ DK 58 40°22′E 43°40′S 右旋 15 Ma
    11 DF D2b) 费雪断裂带 Fisher FZ FS 150 41°36′E 43°16′S 左旋 10 Ma
    12 FD D1b) 发现II号断裂带 Discovery II FZ DII 222 42°37′E 41°55′S 左旋 >96 Ma
    13 DI C3-C2b) 英多姆断裂带 Indomed FZ ID 153 46°06′E 39°33′S 左旋 80 Ma
    14 IG C1b); 25-28c) 加列尼断裂带 Gallieni FZ GA 121 52°19′E 36°31′S 左旋 60 Ma
    15 GZ 24c) 加泽尔断裂带 Gazelle FZ GZ 96 53°23′E 35°44′S 左旋 55 Ma
    16 GS 23c) 高斯断裂带 Gauss FZ GS 80 54°03′E 34°57′S 左旋 47 Ma
    17 GA B3-B2b);
    20-22c); S1d);
    GA-1~GA-6e)
    亚特兰蒂斯II号断裂带 Atlantis II FZ AII 199 57°02′E 32°44′S 左旋 38 Ma
    18 AN 18-19c);
    S2~S3d);
    AN-1~AN-2e)
    诺瓦拉断裂带 Novara FZ NV 57 58°24′E 31°23′S 左旋 38 Ma
    19 NM B1b);
    15-17c);
    S8~S17d);
    NM-1e)
    梅尔维尔断裂带 Melville FZ ME 147 60°41′E 29°44′S 左旋 38 Ma
    20 MR A3-A1b);
    1-14c);
    S8~S17d);
    MR-1~MR-3 e)
    罗德里格斯三联点 Rodriguez Triple Junction RTJ 70°01′E 25°32′S
    注:a)表示Standish et al. (2008)的分段命名方法; b)表示Meyzen et al.(2005)的命名方法;c)表示Cannat et al.(1999)的命名方法;d)表示Rommevaux-Jestin et al. (1997)的命名方法; e)表示Hosford et al. (2003)和Bains et al. (2007)的命名方法.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 2 

    西南印度洋中脊不同时期的平均半扩张速率(单位:mm·a-1)

    Table 2. 

    Half spreading rates of the Southwest Indian Ridge during different periods (unit:mm·a-1)

    时代 剖面位置 3.89°E 19.60°E 39.93°E 48.79°E 54.48°E 63.59°E
    最老洋壳 ~20 Ma ~120 Ma ~165 Ma ~65 Ma ~60 Ma ~30 Ma
    >76 Ma 北翼 - ~33.1 ~26.5 - - -
    南翼 - ~8.06 ~28.4 - - -
    76—52Ma 北翼 - 10.84 15.92 ~12.4 ~18.6 -
    南翼 - 13.08 9.56 ~16.6 ~10.7 -
    52—30 Ma 北翼 - 10.8 13.3 13.6 12.6 -
    南翼 - 14.2 8.7 13 11.9 -
    30—10 Ma 北翼 ~5.8 10.4 6.9 10.4 9.7 ~10.1
    南翼 ~8.1 11.1 13.5 10.4 11 ~6.5
    10—0 Ma 北翼 6.1 7.1 7 5.4 6.3 6.2
    南翼 10.9 10.1 9.6 11.9 11.9 9.8
    注:剖面位置是指剖面与洋脊扩张中心相交点的经度.最老洋壳是指剖面位置可追溯的最老SWIR域洋壳年龄.半扩张速率的计算方法为某时段洋脊一翼生成洋壳宽度除以时间间隔.~表示近似估算值;-表示缺失相应的磁条带.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 3 

    西南印度洋中脊附近海底高原基本参数统计表

    Table 3. 

    The summarized information of oceanic plateaus close to SWIR

    海底高原 英文名 面积/(万km2) 地壳厚度/km 形成时间/Ma 周边洋壳年龄 参考文献
    马达加斯加
    海底高原
    Madagascar Plateau
    (Ridge)
    45 14~26 ~84? >60 Ma Goslin et al., 1980, 1981;
    Sinha et al., 1981;
    Recq et al., 1979
    Zhang et al., 2011
    莫桑比克
    海底高原
    Mozambique Plateau
    (Ridge)
    40 18~24 ~130 >110 Ma Fischer et al., 2017;
    König and Jokat, 2010;
    Jacques et al., 2019
    厄加勒斯
    海底高原
    Agulhas Plateau 12 25 100~94 110~90 Ma Gohl and Uenzelmann-Neben, 2001
    马里昂群岛 Marion Islands 10 ? 0.45~0 ~30 Ma Verwoerd et al., 1990
    德尔卡诺隆起 Del Cano Rise 22 16 80~43 ~60 Ma Goslin and Diament, 1987;
    Zhang et al., 2011
    克罗泽
    海底高原
    Crozet Plateau (Bank) 7 30~35 54, 8.9~0 ~70 Ma Goslin et al., 1981;
    Verwoerd et al., 1990;
    Breton et al., 2013
    康纳德隆起 Conrad Rise 17 30~35 ? 90~75 Ma Goslin, 1979
    注:海底高原面积为-3000 m等深线的估算面积;周边洋壳年龄根据磁条带分布估算;地壳厚度及海底高原形成时间参考文献资料,部分数据缺失.
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
收稿日期:  2019-06-04
修回日期:  2020-04-29
上线日期:  2020-10-05

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